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Weather conditions, earthquakes, marine mammals, and anthropogenic activities influence sound levels in this band. In estimating the acoustic observables, there were challenges including low signal to noise ratio, corrections for source motion, and small sample sizes.

Sci., 6, 117-140, doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-121211-172423, 2014. Very-low-frequency sounds between 1 and 100 Hz propagate large distances in the ocean sound channel. Estimates of observed mean mode energy, cross mode coherence, and temporal coherence are compared with predictions from modal transport theory, utilizing the Garrett– Munk internal wave spectrum. The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory deep-water acoustic propagation experiments in the Philippine Sea Worcester, P.

Center frequencies at these two depths were 75 Hz and 68 Hz, respectively. The simulation analysis also highlights how IWs affect the mode excitation by the source.

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This article presents a statistical model for the scattered mode arrivals and uses the model to design improved travel time estimators. The experimental goals included (a) understanding the impacts of fronts, eddies, and internal tides on acoustic propagation, (b) determining whether acoustic methods, together with other measurements and ocean modeling, can yield estimates of the time-evolving ocean state useful for making improved acoustic predictions, (c) improving our understanding of the physics of scattering by internal waves and spice, (d) characterizing the depth dependence and temporal variability of ambient noise, and (e) understanding the relationship between the acoustic field in the water column and the seismic field in the seafloor.

Colosi, "Low-frequency pulse propagation over 510 km in the Philippine Sea: A comparison of observed and theoretical pulse spreading," J. The internal wave field is estimated at slightly less than unity Garrett-Munk strength.

Two simultaneous m-sequence signals are used, one centered at 200 Hz, the other at 300 Hz; both have a bandwidth of 50 Hz.

The predictions here utilize the theory of Munk and Zachariasen [J. Four classes of propagation paths are examined: the first class has a single upper turning point at about 60 m depth; the second and third classes each have two upper turning points at roughly 250 m; the fourth class has three upper turning points at about 450 m. The smaller vertical scales of sound speed variability of several recent deep water Pacific Ocean acoustic experiments are extracted from individual conductivity, temperature, depth(CTD) casts taken along the acoustic paths of these experiments, close to the times ofthe experiments. The primary use of underwater gliders is to collect oceanographic data within the water column and periodically relay the data at the surface via a satellite connection. Deep seafloor arrivals in long range ocean acoustic propagation Stephen, R. The bottom-diffracted surface-reflected mechanism provides a means for acoustic signals and noise from distant sources to appear with significant strength on the deep seafloor.

134, 3347–3358 (2013)] for measurements acquired during the 2009 Philippine Sea experiment and associated Monte Carlo computations. The signal was a broadband m-sequence centered at 284 Hz. White, "A Method to Determine Small-Scale Internal Wave and Spice Fields from a Single CTD Profile with Application to Three Long-Range Ocean Acoustics Experiments," Technical Memorandum, APL-UW TM 1-14, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, 59 pp. The increasing availability of long-term records of ocean sound will provide new opportunities for a deeper understanding of natural and anthropogenic sound sources and potential interactions between them. The structure of these arrivals from 500 to 3200 km range is remarkably robust.